THE BRIDGE PLAN

 

 

NUTRITION AND LIFE-STYLE RECOMMENDATIONS

 

Copyright © 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

 

by

 

L. Stephen Coles, M.D., Ph.D.,

Co-Founder and Executive Director

 

Los Angeles Gerontology Research Group

 

817 Levering Avenue, Unit 8

Los Angeles, CA 90024-2767; USA

 

Voice: 310-209-0853; FAX: 310-209-0860; Cell: 310-892-9120

E-mails: scoles@grg.org; scoles@ucla.edu; scoles@earthlink.net; 

 

URL: http://www.grg.org

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DISCLAIMER.. 6

I.    INTRODUCTION.. 6

II.  RECOMMENDED DAILY VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS. 6

A.  General Principles on Choosing Supplements. 6

B.  A Brief Note Regarding Dosages. 7

C. A Brief Note Regarding Prices. 8

D.  For Both Men and Women. 8

E.  For Females Only. 14

F.  For Males Only. 15

G.  For Children Only. 16

H.  Hormones and Supplements That We Hope to Recommend in the Very Near Future. 16

1.  rhGH (recombinant human Growth Hormone) 16

2. Thymosin Alpha-1. 17

3. L-Glutathione. 17

I.  Agents That Are Not Recommended at the Present Time. 17

1. Prescription Drugs: 17

2. Herbs: 17

3. Amino Acids: 17

4. Miscellaneous Compounds: 18

5. Discredited Agents: 18

III.       DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS. 19

A. High Fiber. 19

B. Low Fat 20

C. Total Calories. 20

D. Miscellaneous. 22

1. Wines and Spirits. 22

2. Tobacco Products. 22

3. Caffeine. 22

4. Green Tea. 22

5. Prescription Drugs. 22

IV.     ANNUAL CHECKUPS. 23

V.      ORAL HYGIENE AND DENTAL VISITS. 23

VI.     FIRST AID.. 24

VII.      THE NEED FOR REGULAR EXERCISE.. 24

VIII.     THE FREQUENCY OF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.. 25

IX.     HOW TO REDUCE OR AVOID UNNECESSARY STRESS. 25

X.      A BRIEF WORD ABOUT CHARLATANS. 29

REFERENCES: 33

APPENDIX A.  HEALTH-RELATED NEWSLETTERS. 44

APPENDIX B.  NUTRITIONAL ASSOCIATIONS. 44

APPENDIX C.  HEALTH SOURCES ON THE INTERNET.. 45

APPENDIX D.   PERSONAL COMPUTER SOFTWARE.. 45

APPENDIX E.   HEALTH RISKS TRAVELING ABROAD.. 46

APPENDIX F.  LABORATORIES CAPABLE OF MEASURING OXIDATIVE-STRESS PROFILES FROM URINE AND/OR BLOOD.. 46

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

      Page

 

DISCLAIMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    6

 

I.  INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    6

 

II.  RECOMMENDED DAILY VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS . . . . . . . . . 6

 

A. Evidence-Based Principles For Choosing Supplements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6

 

B.  A Brief Note Regarding Dosages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7

 

C.  A Brief Note Regarding Prices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8

 

D  For Both Men and Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8

 

E.  For Females Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   14

 

F.  For Males Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   15

 

G.  For Children Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    16

 

H.  Hormones That We Hope to Recommend in the Very Near Future . . . . . . . . . 16

 

1.  Human Growth Hormone and its Secretagogues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17

 

2.  Thymosin Alpha-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    17

 

I.   Agents That are Specifically Not Recommended at the Present Time  . . . . . . .  17

 

1.  Prescription Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    17

 

2.  Herbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    17

 

3.  Amino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    18

 

4.  Miscellaneous Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

 

5.  Discredited Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT’D.)

 

Page

 

III.  DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19

 

A.  High Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   19

 

B.  Low Fat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   20

 

C. Total Calories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20

 

D.  Miscellaneous Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   22

 

1.  Wine and Alcoholic Spirits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

 

2.  Tobacco Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22

 

3.  Beverages with Caffeine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22

 

4.  Green Tea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   22

 

5.  Prescription Drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   23

 

IV.      THE NEED FOR ANNUAL CHECKUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23

 

V.        ORAL HYGIENE AND DENTAL VISITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23

 

VI.     FIRST AID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    24

 

VII.     THE NEED FOR REGULAR EXERCISE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24

 

VIII.    THE FREQUENCY OF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

 

IX.       HOW TO REDUCE OR AVOID UNNECESSARY STRESS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25

 

X.        A BRIEF WORD ABOUT CHARLATANS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   29

 

 

 

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      33


TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT’D.)

 

Page

 

APPENDICES

 

 

A.  HEALTH-RELATED NEWSLETTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44

 

B.  NUTRITIONAL ASSOCIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

 

C.  HEALTH SOURCES ON THE INTERNET  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

 

D.  PERSONAL COMPUTER SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45

 

E.  HEALTH RISKS TRAVELING ABROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   46

 

F.  CLINICAL LABORATORIES FOR OXIDATIVE-STRESS PROFILES . . . . . . . . . . 46


DISCLAIMER

 

            Since the dosages of the various nutritional supplements to be recommended will vary with age, weight, and gender, as well as with nutritional status, please consult with your personal physician before embarking on a rigorous dietary-supplement program.  In addition to a nutritious diet, both exercise and a proper mental attitude are critical elements in combating sickness and disease, while still helping one to operate at peak performance.  None of these recommendations are intended for use by persons under 18 years of age.  Neither are they for pregnant or nursing mothers.  If you are taking prescription medications or have been diagnosed with a particular disease or illness, again consultation with your personal physician is necessary.  This white paper has not been reviewed by the Food and Drug Administration. None of the products or supplements described below are intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent a specific disease.

 

Furthermore, we feel it is highly desirable for each person to measure his or her initial oxidative-stress-level before embarking on a major program of antioxidant vitamins.  Not only will this will help to establish a base line for supplementation, it will permit you fine tune your program over time.  This can be done simply with a urine and/or blood sample mailed either by express or overnight mail.  Please consult with one of the  Clinical Laboratories listed in Appendix F for proper methods. 

 

I.       INTRODUCTION       

 

I originally prepared this revised "short list" of nutritional and life-style recommendations at the urging of numerous friends and colleagues who have asked me for information regarding the vitamin and life-style choices that I formulated for myself and my family over the last three decades.  I have called this set of recommendations the Bridge Plan because it is intended to ‘bridge’ us safely into the next few decades when we believe that more effective means will become available to extend human lifespan significantly based on stem-cell and genomic-engineering technologies. 

 

II. RECOMMENDED DAILY VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS

A.  Evidence-Based Principles for Choosing Supplements

 

            There has been a dizzying array of breathless newspaper headlines, health-related magazine stories, and even peer-reviewed articles in medical journals over the last ten years, all originating from the trenches of nutritional science [121].  The problem is that many of the claims are mutually contradictory.   “Compound X” will help you.  “Compound X” will hurt you.  So, what are we to believe? At the end of the day, one learns to be highly skeptical of anything that scientists are saying.

 

            One of the reasons for the confusion was recently uncovered by Greek researcher John Ioannidis who estimates that 80 percent of all epidemiological studies report results that are “due to chance,” not due to a real, underlying cause-and-effect relationship [127].  The problem is methodological.  Observational studies based on retrospective data in which subjects or patients could have been self-selected tend to bias the results In favor of a particular intervention.  Also, sifting through data selectively, discarding data that is inconsistent with a particular hypothesis can cause problems.  That’s why a subsequent placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial reported by others (the gold standard) can be inconsistent with some earlier observational studies. 

 

Nevertheless, I have generally tried to follow four guidelines in my selection of dietary supplements for myself, my family, and my patients:

 

1.  We have reason to believe, based on empirical data, that the supplement will actually do some good (this may include either anecdotal evidence or a rigorous clinical trial);

 

2. Even if not scientifically proven, there is a proposed mechanism-of-action or suggested hypothesis that explains the observed positive effects;


 

3. There is evidence that the supplement is non-toxic for humans,  at least in the range of dosages being considered (therapeutic index)(even water when drunk to excess can be toxic!) and that any excess beyond that utilized by the body for beneficial purposes gets excreted, i.e., doesn't accumulate dangerously;

 

4.  The supplement is affordable (it’s not going to break the bank.).

 

Seven additional guidelines that should be taken into consideration include the following:

 

1.      Has the given study been replicated by others?

2.      What was the size of the effect being reported?

3.      Was the result merely a proportional trend or was it statistically significant?

4.      What was the power of the study (the size of the population studied)?

5.      What was the duration of the follow-up?

6.      Are the findings internally consistent based on tight confidence intervals?

7.      Was the result published in a reputable journal?

 

B.  A Brief Note Regarding Dosages

 

Doses are among the most controversial aspects of prescription writing and nutritional recommendations. In order to maintain proper health and well-being, everyone will agree that a wide variety of nutrients are needed, but consensus as to how much of each and in what form is difficult to achieve. Opinions vary from those practitioners who feel that all drugstore supplements are a waste of money, assuming of course that one eats a well-balanced diet, to those who take supplements by the carload (so-called "megadoses").  There is little or no valid scientific evidence to support megadose claims, such as made by longevity-authors Dirk Pearson and Sandy Shaw [24].  Here, scientific comparisons between species gets a bit murky, since a dose that works well in a mouse may or may not be linearly related to benefits obtained in humans per kilogram of body weight, possibly due to idiosyncratic variations in rodent physiology, even acknowledging that we both belong to the "mammalian" family.  The late Linus Pauling was considered to be an "old quack" by some regarding his use of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), since he recommended (and took himself) 10 or more grams every day!  The jury is still out on such a high dose, but we shouldn't forget that Dr. Pauling (double Nobel Prize winner) had always been a controversial character throughout his distinguished careers at both CalTech and Stanford Universities, and he has frequently been proven correct over time on other matters [9].

 

After many years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has formulated what is referred to as the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) oriented toward the avoidance of clear pathological states rather than the amounts needed to maintain optimal health. Therefore, the average adult, even though not suffering from a specific disorder, should observe all RDAs and then some. The chart of recommendations listed above should be thought of as a guideline. The amounts listed are safe (will not cause toxicity), but may be varied according to an individual's size, weight, gender, and health status. All other things being equal, and in the absence of specific laboratory blood chemistries, those who exercise heavily need higher doses. Also, those who are under great stress, on medications, on restricted diets, bed ridden, females on oral contraceptives or pregnant, recovering from surgery, smokers, heavy drinkers, etc. may need greater or lesser amounts of certain vitamins and minerals.

 

  It is suggested that you take nearly all your supplements at the same time each day with a regular meal to establish a pattern.  The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are more readily absorbed with food.  When traveling, you need to prepare collections of pills, labeled day-by-day, for as many days as you expect to be away from home.  I generally place all opened vitamin bottles in my refrigerator to keep them away from children and to preserve freshness.

C. A Brief Note Regarding Prices

 

All of the vitamins or hormones listed below, with certain exceptions as noted, are typically available inexpensively from local drug stores  (or health-food stores) in your home neighborhood. Others, however, may need to be special ordered (See source where noted) or obtained under a physician’s prescription.  However, prices are widely variable, even for an identical product.  Shop around at different stores, and only buy supplements when they are on sale.  When buying by mail-order over the telephone, make sure you ask AIs this your best price?@  You may be surprised to find that simply asking can help lower your costs.  A month’s full supply of antioxidants may cost $40.

D.  For Both Men and Women

 

Unfortunately, there isn’t a single supplement that compounds all required vitamins into one pill. Therefore, one should expect to buy most if not all of the following items separately:

 

128.           &nbs p;          1. A standard multivitamin (not "therapeutic") with mineral supplements (e.g., Centrum [Lederle], Central-Vite [Your Life], etc.) The multi should include Vitamin A 5000 iu (vision, skin, and hair), Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) 1.5 mg (muscles and nervous system), Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 1.7 mg (nervous system), Niacin 20 mg (metabolism), Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) 6 mcg (vital for healthy GI track and nervous system, blood), Biotin 30 mcg (metabolism), Folic Acid 400 mcg (blood, growth, and development)(for women who may become pregnant to prevent Spina Bifida), Vitamin D3  (Ergocalciferol)[400-1,000] iu (bones, teeth, anti-cancer of the colon), Vitamin K1 (Phytonadione) 25 mcg (clotting),  Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone-4 or -7) [20-45] mg, and a collection of trace minerals (Boron, Chloride, Copper, Iodine,  Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Phosphorus, Potassium, Silicon, Tin, Vanadium, and Zinc) (Optional Note: Additional Phosphorus 60 mg, Magnesium 500 mg, or Zinc 60 mg [15] may be added with still further benefit.)

 

2. Fish Oil Capsules (Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Eicosa Pentaenoic Acid [EPA], and Docosa Hexaenoic Acid [DHA]) [l,000 – 1,200] mg (increases HDL)

 

3. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) l,000 mg (Antioxidant)

 

4. Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) [400-800] iu [international units](Antioxidant)[A mixed tocopherol including both alpha and gamma [230 mg] forms has been recommended by Prof. Bruce Ames of UC Berkeley as superior to either alpha or gamma alone.] Early anecdotal evidence from large observational studies showing that Vitamin E might reduce the risk of heart disease or protect against cancer has not held up under the closer scrutiny of randomized clinical trials. The August 13, 2007 Archives of Internal Medicine [122 - 124] reported that 8,000 women with an average age of 61 involved in a study over nine years did not benefit from taking Vitamins C, E, or Beta Carotene.  Scientists had previously thought that these antioxidants benefited the heart by counteracting free radicals that can damage artery linings, encourage blood clots, and otherwise alter the function of blood vessels. A 1988 epidemiological study in more than 21,000 Finish men found that 40 percent with the highest blood levels of alpha-tocopherol had a 36 percent reduction in the risk of developing cancer.  But a seven-year randomized trial published in 2005, of more than 700 patients with Vascular Disease or Diabetes Mellitus, found no protection from cancer from a 400 iu daily dose. [125].  Because these studies involved high-risk populations or had other limitations, the possibility that these vitamins may provide some protection has not been completely ruled out. On the other hand, most experts no longer recommend taking Vitamins C or E supplements for heart or cancer protection.  

 

5. Omit Beta-Carotene (Vitamin A precursor) 25,000 iu (Antioxidant) Current nutritional research is filled with gaps and contradictions; e.g., a 1994 study showed that, in Finland, cigarette smokers were more likely, not less likely, to develop lung cancer when taking Beta Carotene.  Nevertheless, benefits for nonsmokers are undisputed, but, of course, none of our readers are smokers. Therefore, one could either take or omit this supplement.

 

6. Omit  Selenium [50-200] mcg [micrograms] (Antioxidant)(Shown to protect against lung, colon, rectal, and prostate cancer, as well as Diabetes Mellitus.)

 

            It has long been recommended that 200 micrograms of the mineral Selenium every day as a dietary supplement should lower one's risk of Diabetes. Now, according to an article appearing in the August 21, 2007 issue of The Annals of Internal Medicine, the opposite may be true [114].  1,250 persons who took 200 mcg qd of this mineral for seven years in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study were seen to have a 50 percent higher risk of Type-2 Diabetes [115, 116].

 

            We are therefore withdrawing our prior recommendation to take daily Selenium supplements until further notice. Although no single study can provide a final answer, there is enough concern that we should all stop talking this mineral for the time being.

 

7. Omit Chromium Picolinate [400-800] mcg (shown to preserve muscle mass while dieting; mechanism: increases the body's sensitivity to insulin [10].)

 

            We all know that Chromium is an essential ingredient of our nutritional profile, but Chromium Picolinate [200 - 500] mcgs qd no longer makes sense as a GRG-recommended supplement based on newly-discovered scientific data.  The claims made by the health-food industry (with an obvious self-interest in selling us their products, but no funds to perform double-blind clinical trials to support their position) has told us for decades based on anecdotal and epidemiological evidence...

 

(1) 90 percent of us don't get enough Chromium in our normal diets;

(2) It reduces appetite;

(3) It breaks down fat;

(4) It causes weight loss;

(5) It adds muscle; and

(6) It turns sugar into energy;

 

            However, all of these claims are now shown to be false based on a placebo-controlled clinical trial by the US Department of Agriculture [Journal of Nutrition] of 83 women for 12 weeks [117]. "Chromium is an essential nutrient, but supplements won't help anyone lose weight or build muscle," said Henry Lukaski, a U.S. Department of Agriculture researcher who specializes in dietary trace metals. "People are using this doggone stuff with high hopes, and it's not working." Lukaski and his colleagues recently put chromium supplements to a rigorous test. They kept 83 women on carefully controlled diets for 12 weeks. About half of the women also received 200 mcgs of Chromium each day, while the other women took a placebo. As reported earlier this year in the journal Nutrition, the women taking Chromium didn't lose more weight or gain more muscle than the women taking placebos. Many other studies have reached the same conclusion: Chromium supplements don't have any effect on weight loss.

 

            Believers might claim that Chromium only works at doses much higher than 200 micrograms. But more isn't better, says John B. Vincent, a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Alabama.

Rat studies conducted by Vincent and others show that even massive amounts of Chromium --

far more than a person taking supplements would ever get -- won't speed weight loss.

 

            Chromium is generally considered safe in amounts of up to about 1,000 micrograms (or 1

mg) a day, but doses higher than that could be risky, Vincent says. Chromium is an oxidant -- the opposite of an antioxidant -- and large doses could potentially damage cells and even DNA. Indeed, there have been scattered reports of liver and kidney damage in people taking more than 1,200 micrograms of Chromium each day for months at a time.

 

            According to Vincent, claims of widespread chromium deficiencies are "absolutely false." In reality, he says, about 98 percent of all Americans get at least 30 micrograms of chromium each day, putting them in line with recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IoM). Chromium is found in grains, beans, peas, meats, red wine and many other foods and drinks.

 

8. Omit Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine HCl) 50 mg (Antioxidant) [as this dose tends to accumulate over  the years, it has been found to cause peripheral sensory neuropathy.  Extra B6 has also been found to in ]

 

9. Pantothenic Acid (B Vitamin) 250 mg [for growth and development.]

 

10. Soya Lecithin (Phosphatidylcholine) 1200 mg (For cell membranes; boosts acetylcholine)(PC55 [Twin Labs] or Maxicholine are best with 55% and 65% ratios, respectively, compared to only 5% for regular lecithin.)

 

11. Super Garlic 3X (odorless tablets) 440 mg raw garlic concentrate; Source: Metagenics, Inc. of San Clemente, California 92672; however, any odor-modified kyolic garlic extract is acceptable. (Ca-Chrome caplets combine both of the above.)

 

12. Calcium l,000 mg (Oyster Shell), especially useful for females susceptible to osteoporosis. We suggest increasing the dose to 1,500 mg for post-menopausal women not on ERT (Estrogen Replacement Therapy) along with 800 iu of Vitamin D  (ordinary multivitamin tabs contain only 400 iu)(Calcium supplements have been shown to prevent osteoporotic bone loss by 1/3 to 1/2 in a placebo-controlled study with 122 women over 2 years.) (The Lancet (August 25, 2007) recommends Calcium at 1,200 mg Calcium and Vitamin D 800 iu in a review of 29 randomized trials, including more than 63,000 men and women older than 50.) [129]

 

13. CoEnzyme Q10 [60 - 120] mg (Ubiquinone)(Antioxidant)[11]. (CoQ-10 is found in mitochondria, as part of a unique metabolic pathway that synthesizes ATP, the body's general-purpose energy molecule at the cellular level.  CoQ-10 is reputed to benefit the immune system [12], allergies, asthma, respiratory and heart diseases, duodenal ulcers, and also serves to prevent some types of cancer. We have observed statistically significant increases in average life-expectancy in rodents on CoQ-10 [13], but a dose-response curve for humans has not yet been established)(Typical Food Sources: salmon, sardines, and mackerel; Supplements available from Twin Labs, Natural Life, or NOW Natural Foods)

 

14.  Pycnogenol (proanthocyanidins, bioflavenoids)(Antioxidant-- claimed to 30-50 times more powerful at scavenging free radicals than Vitamins C and E, respectively)(Sources: maritime pine-tree bark or grape-seed extract.)

 

15. DMAE  (Di Methyl Amino Ethanol) 100 mg (Membrane stabilization; alleged to help improve memory by increasing the availability of acetylcholine.)

 

16. Flax Seed Oil 1-2 tablespoons per day (cold-pressed unrefined)(obtainable in black [opaque] plastic bottles in the refrigerated section of your local health food store [not available in regular supermarkets].  It must show a "date of pressing" and a four-month  "date of expiration" listed on the bottle.  It is light yellow in color with a slightly nutty flavor.  Keep it refrigerated at all times.  I use Barleans at a cost of $7.95 for an 8 fl. oz. bottle.)(Function: Flaxseed [Linseed] Oil rebalances the ratio of Omega-3 to Omega-6 fatty acids in your body, since this particular oil has the ratio of 3:1 while almost all other processed vegetable/cooking oils are in the reverse ratio).

 

17. Ginseng Root [250-500] mg (Antioxidant) (This ancient Chinese herb is alleged to improve cerebrovascular circulation, normalize blood sugar, and stimulate the immune system.)

 

18. Gingko Biloba Extract (24%) 60 mg. (Antioxidant) (Claimed to increase microcapillary beds in brain, peripheral nervous system, and liver tissue.  Can enhance alertness and short-term memory in the elderly.)

 


19. Ginger. 125 mg. Herbal supplement.

 

20. Bilberry. 80 mg.  Herbal supplement.

 

21. Dong Quai. 150 mg. Chinese herbal supplement.

 

22. St. John’s Wort, [300-600] mg.  Herbal supplement indicated for mild to moderate depression.

 

23. Feverfew. Herbal supplement indicated for migraine headaches and possibly for arthritis pain.

 

24. Goldenseal.  Herbal supplement indicated for diarrhea.

 

25.  Horse Chestnut Extract. Herbal supplement indicated for varicose veins.

 

26. Milk Thistle.   Herbal supplement indicated for liver disorders.

 

27.  IP-6 (Inositol Hexaphosphate). A natural B vitamin supplement derived from corn or wild rice indicated for reduction of risk of cancer from all causes. Take IP-6 1-2 capsules as a NK T-cell immune booster  for those who have a family history of cancer and wish to take a preventative agent.

 

28. Alpha Lipoic Acid, [100 - 150] mg (another strong Antioxidant)(est. $15.00 per month) There is a whole society of researchers devoted to this simple ring compound.

 

29. Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR)([500 - 2,000] mg)(a powerful Antioxidant; Sigma Tau, Inc.)(The principal mechanism of action is to facilitate the transport of free fatty acids through mitochondrial inner-membranes to facilitate the synthesis of new ATP [the application of 1 micromole of ALC to mitochondria increases oxidative activity 260 percent], although there are other mechanisms as well, such as improving cognitive function in Alzheimer’s patients.)

 

30. DHEA (DeHydrdoEpiAndrosterone) or DHEA-s (DHEA-sulfate) 50 mg qod (every other day); (est. $5.00 per month; although DHEA was remarkably difficult to obtain as recently as five years ago and could only be gotten from a few compounding pharmacies around the country, it is now available in all health food stores without prescription in either pill form or even as a gum.)  At age 25-30, levels of DHEA peak and then begin to decline.  By age 75, levels decay exponentially to 80 percent of youthful levels. This steroid promises to boost libido for both men and women, as well as prevent atherosclerosis, some cancers, and memory loss; it also builds muscle and bone mass, reduces obesity, and strengthens immunity [68-70].  As a supplement, this hormone, has only one precaution: potential androgenic conversion means that men with a history of prostate gland problems should have their PSA level checked before starting on DHEA (A home saliva test-kit for DHEA levels is now available for $30.00; Call Life Enhancement Products, Inc. of Petaluma, California at 1-800-543-3873).   In the latter part of this year various patented formulations of DHEA are expected to come out on the market, and a more precise dose recommendation will be made at that time.  (See the Newsletters in Appendix A for future announcements.) 

 

31. Pregnenolone, [10-30] mg qod (est. $7.00 per month).  Pregnenolone is synthesized from cholesterol within many different tissues, particularly including the adrenal glands, the brain, and the skin.  As a hormone, it is similar in many respects but not identical to DHEA, for which it is an immediate precursor.  It has been studied since the 1940s, and human and animal studies have found virtually no adverse side effects after pregnenolone supplementation, even after very high doses for long time periods.  However, extra caution must be observed by those choosing to take Pregnenolone and DHEA concurrently, since they are both on a common biochemical pathway that synthesizes many other steroid hormones downstream, and they may have synergistic or antagonistic effects not proportional to their individual dosages.  This steroid is sometimes called a neurosteroid, since brain tissue contains very high levels.  Indeed, improved memory and cognitive thinking in humans and animals has been associated with pregnenolone supplementation.  It also improves sleep patterns and psychological mood.  It has been especially good for arthritis patients. Studies from the University of Massachusetts found better performance in healthy young subjects being tested in flight simulators.  Like DHEA, pregnenolone appears to maintain the body’s resistance to stress.

 

32.  Melatonin, [0.5-3.0] mg; take each night just before bed time, not two hours before.  (Antioxidant  [44-47]).  Enhances immune function, but also acts as a natural sleeping pill.   See Ref. [5, p. 57] for dosage information. For those few who experience Arebound insomnia@ on melatonin (waking up ready to go at 4:00 AM), you may wish to consider the time-release version (See Emerald Labs: 619-930-8078). Melatonin is especially valuable in cases of Ajet lag@ or whenever traveling across major changes in time zones. According to Prof. Russel Reiter at the University of Texas in San Antonio, human studies have suggested that melatonin can reduce tumor growth and prolong survival, and by boosting the natural production of glutathione and SOD, it is an unusually potent immune system stimulator.  

 

33.   Zinc Gluconate Lozenges, OTC treatment for the "Common Cold"; 13.3 mg six-times-a-day; Physicians at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in Ohio recently found that patients sucking these lozenges suffered cold symptoms for half as many days as did untreated individuals (average 4.4 days instead of 7.6 days for controls).  For example, Cold-Eeze Ionic Zinc Lozenges taken within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms was shown to provide relief and reduce the severity and duration of symptoms by 42 percent [Journal of International Medical Research, Vol. 20, No. 3 (June 1992) and Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 125, No. 2 (July 1996)]. How this compound works is not yet clear.  However, in vitro, zinc can, among other flu-fighting activities, impair viral replication.  In vivo, it is proposed that zinc coats mucous membranes and presumably helps to block viral penetration by reducing membrane stickiness. 

 

34.   SAM-e (S-AdenosylMethionine) [200 - 400] mg per day best taken on an empty stomach 30 minutes before a meal.  First discovered in Italy in 1952, S-AdenosylMethionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate is the most stable form of SAM-e, and is involved in transmethylation.  It is important for joint health, mobility, and joint comfort, as well as liver function, mood, and emotional well being.

 

35.  Curcumin (Turmeric) 400 mg (useful in the prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease – Curry is heavily used for cooking in India, and the incidence of Alzheimer’s is much reduced per capita. [118])

 

36. Lysine (Amino Acid) [1 - 3] gm per day for a few days for the indication of cold sores or fever blisters on the lips secondary to Herpes Simplex-1 Virus.  Proposed Mechanism: Arginine appears to be required exclusively by the virus for its replication, while lysine competitively inhibits the supply of arginine.  Lysine seems to reduce flare-ups and severity and reduces healing time for herpes blisters. There may be side effects associated with long-term administration, however, including gallstones, or elevation of cholesterol. 

E.  For Females Only

 

Based on the latest studies implicating excessive iron in increased risk of heart attacks, we have withdrawn our previous recommendation that menstruating women take a multivitamin with an iron (Fe++) supplement. Except in conditions of pregnancy or heavy bleeding, the risk of Iron Deficiency Anemia is actually negligible compared with the risk of iron accumulation (hemosiderosis and its associated cardiac side effects). Indeed, donating a pint of blood each year for both men and women may not only be humanitarian for the potential recipient, it may be beneficial for the donor by reducing the load of excess iron in the body.

 

According to the latest studies, we strongly recommend ERT (Estrogen/Progesterone Replacement Therapy) for postmenopausal women, not just to end the discomfort of "hot flashes," but more importantly to achieve significant protection against osteoporosis and heart disease.  The benefits of hormone replacement outweigh the risks to such a degree that treatment should even be contemplated in women with a family history of breast cancer.  What was learned from the WHI (Woman’s Health Initiative) trial, however, is that one should never wait for a few years before starting on Estrogen replacement for the first time.  The KEEPS Study (Kronos Longevity Institute of Phoenix, AZ) is currently underway to prove this point once and for all.  The route of administration (pill vs. patch) is important to the so-called first-pass effect (through the liver).  The type of estrogen (bioidentical) is also critical.  See your personal gynecologist for more details.  The herbal Black Cohosh (often called Black Snakeroot), a member of the buttercup family, has been recommended to ease the discomfort of hot flashes.  Enzymatic Therapy claims that its own proprietary extract called Remifemin has been shown to be effective in clinical trials. [128]

 

            HRT can be inhibited by 27-HydroxyCholesterol (27HC).  When estrogen levels fall as happens in menopause, 27HC is able to beat the hormone to the targeted receptors and block its beneficial effects.  As reported in the journal Molecular Endocrinology, 27HC acts in a different way in breast tissue, activating estrogen receptors that promote tumor growth. [130]

 

For women suffering from a lagging libido and energy loss, adding Testosterone (Yes, women have Testosterone as well as men) is indicated.  Possible side effects range from oily skin, acne, and body hair growth, as well as a possible increase in the risk of heart disease.  Even though there is now substantial evidence from clinical trials that it works, the debate over safety is still continuing.  (See below.)

F.  For Males Only

 

After age 50, if cholesterol > 180, Aspirin 325 mg qod (every other day)(anti-platelet/anti-clotting)(Halfprin, enteric coated aspirin, 165 mg qd is recommended for those with pre-existing stomach problems, which are an occasional side effect of aspirin in its pure form.)

 

 For men aged 60 and above, Testosterone (by prescription) for increased well-being, libido, muscle strength, bone hardness, and achieving significant drops in LDL and total cholesterol levels. Routes of Administration: Testoderm from Alza [approved by the FDA in 1993] is a nonadhesive transdermal patch applied to the skin daily; BioTechnology General is working on a testosterone wafer that will dissolve under the tongue and be quickly absorbed into the blood stream; endocrinologists are also testing a chewing-gum tablet at Johns Hopkins University.  A month’s supply is about $[25 - 40].

 

Also for men over age 60, Deprenyl  (Eldepryl)(Selegiline Hydrochloride) 1 mg may be taken daily. Although Deprenyl is a prescription drug specifically indicated for Parkinson's Disease, it can help stabilize memory loss in geriatric patients in general (proposed mechanism = SOD [Super Oxide Dismutase] enzyme antioxidant). Note: Deprenyl is readily available over-the-counter in Mexico, and many persons routinely travel to border cities to legally acquire a three-month supply for personal use [14].

 

Regular blood donations to the Red Cross or any convenient hospital in your area, at least one pint (unit) annually, are also a good idea, as indicated above.

G.  For Children Only

 

A standard children's chewable (as tolerated) from ages 2 to 10 is sufficient.  Of course, it is assumed that everyone's water supply contains Fluoride, essential to the proper hardening of teeth.  Otherwise, a supplement is required (tablets or drops).  It's never too early to have dental checkups in anticipation of potential future problems.  Immunizations are described on p. 19   and in Appendix E.

H.  Hormones and Supplements That We Hope to Recommend in the Near Future

1.  rhGH (recombinant human Growth Hormone)

rhGH is an expensive anti-aging intervention, and the FDA has explicitly excluded all off-label prescriptions other than for the original pediatric indication for hypopituitary dwarfism (children destined to have extremely short stature) or “AIDS wasting” and specifically disallows treatment for "growth hormone deficiency" in older normal adults.  In our view, the potential side effects of excess hGH (acromegaly) are overrated when taken only in “replacement doses.”  Conversely, the benefits, based on controlled clinical trials sponsored by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), were disappointing when they are announced in the Summer of 1998.  The real barrier for a new geriatric indication is that it's an injectable protein with upscale prices ($[800 – 1,000] per month). These costs have not fallen rapidly as expected, as the current U.S. suppliers (Genentech, Inc. with 70% of the market and Eli Lilly with the balance) attempt to meet competition from European suppliers (Bio-Technology General Corp. and Novo Nordisk, AS (Denmark)), who were expected to get FDA approval to market in the U.S.  Also, we should note that Merck is testing a non-peptidal oral agent (MK0677) to stimulate the pituitary into releasing more hGH, but this compound has never been submitted to the FDA for human clinical trials. (See Chapter 21, [72] for more details.)  Peptidal secretagogues of growth hormone, like hexarelin (a hexapeptide), are encouraging and may be considerably less expensive in the future. Sermorelin may be even more effective, as it is closer to the native GHSH.   None of the recent data about hGH, however, convinces us to believe that it should be indicated for anyone except those who have a demonstrable reduction with respect to age- and gender-matched controls for this hormone.  The latest rodent experiments lead us to the conclusion that GH can in fact be a life-shortening rather than a life-lengthening hormone, even though it may make patients feel better in the short term.

2. Thymosin Alpha-1

Thymosin is another promising agent, which will serve to enhance immune competence is undergoing clinical trials now and is expected to be available sometime in the near term.

3. L-Glutathione

Glutathione is a natural antioxidant synthesized by the body that is now alleged to be contained in a chewable tablet that will not be easily destroyed by stomach acid.  ThiOTab  tablets also contain Xylitol, a sugar-free sweetener, known for its beneficial oral and dental hygiene properties (distributed by Thione International of Atlanta, GA 30305).  We are still awaiting scientific documentation.

I.  Agents That Are Not Recommended at the Present Time

 

The following agents are all under investigation at various clinical and animal research centers but, in our view, their value and/or risk still needs to be proven:

1. Prescription Drugs:

Centrophenoxine (Lucidril)(Reverses some brain aging and decreases lipofuscin formation in neurons), BCE-001; Hydergine (Very safe Ergot Alkaloid)(Increases metabolic efficiency in the brain leading to increased blood supply, and therefore protects against hypoxia; decreases lipofuscin formation); Vasopressin (Diapid)[nasal spray](memory); Piracetam (Very safe; claimed to increase left/right hemispheric transmission in the brain, across the corpus callosum; claimed to help with Alzheimers Disease, especially when combined with choline), L059; Metformin (Phenformin, Buformin), Dilantin (Diphenylhydantoin, DPH)(Normally thought of as an anticonvulsant, but has other properties); Aminoguanadine (blocks formation of Advanced Glycosylation Products, AGEs); Quercetin; and RU-486 (Normally thought of as an abortifacient, but has other important properties), Bromocriptine (increases dopamine); Pimagedine (a new solvent for the breakup of AGEs [Advanced Gylcosylation End-Products], Dr. Richard Bucala, Picower Institute for Medical Research in New York).

2. Herbs:

 

Kava; Shitaki Mushrooms; Echinacea; Pantocrinum (deer antler velvet); cordyceps; galanthamine (bulbs of daffodils).  With sales of $300 million annually, echinacea doesn’t prevent the common cold after all.  As reported in the December 3, 2003 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, in a study of 707 upper respiratory infections in more than 400 otherwise healthy kids aged  [2-11] years in the state of Washington, not only did echinacea fail to make a dent in their illnesses, it also produced more skin rashes than a placebo!  We have only recently learned that Saw Palmetto does not reduce the symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) in men as had been claimed for decades by the health-supplement industry [120].

3. Amino Acids:

 

Various popular Amino Acids, like Glutamine, Arginine, L-Ornithine, L-Cystine, Phenylalanine, Methionine, L-Tryptophan, L-Tyrosine, etc., are not recommended at this time, since one probably gets adequate levels of these amino acids already, assuming a normal health status and diet.  However, Amino Tropin 6, a patented combination of the nutrients GABA (Gamma Amino Butryic Acid, a known neurotransmitter substance), Arginine, Lysine, and Xanthinol Nicotinate (a B Vitamin), may have potent growth-hormone-releasing effects and must be studied further.  The problem is to distinguish between statistically-significant increases, as published in the scientific literature, and clinically-significant increases for humans having a normal health status and diet and without simultaneously undergoing protein restriction.

4. Miscellaneous Compounds:

 

PBN (Phenyl Butyl Nitrone)(Significant age-reversing properties have been reported for white mice particularly in terms of memory and learning; it was placed in the mouse’s water supply);  TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor); Phosphotidylserine; Bromocriptine, BHT (Butylated Hydroxy Toluene), GHB (Gamma Hydroxy Butyrate; significant side effects include nausea, disorientation, and blackouts, and sometimes called the “date-rape drug”).  For Resveratrol [1 – 5 mg], a number of beneficial health effects, such as anti-cancer, antiviral, neuroprotective, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and life-prolonging effects have been reported, although some of these studies used animal subjects, such as rats. Resveratrol is found in the skin of red grapes and is a constituent of red wine but, based on extrapolation from animal trials, apparently not in sufficient amounts to explain the “French paradox” that the incidence of coronary heart disease is relatively low in southern France despite high dietary intake of saturated fats. Konrad T. Howitz and Robert Zipkin of BIOMOL International discovered that Resveratrol increases the activity of an enzyme called SIR-T1. They then contacted David Sinclair of the Harvard Medical School, and co-founder of Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, in order to initiate a collaboration. Sinclair found that Resveratrol significantly increases the lifespan of yeast and mice. There is hope that it could do the same for humans.

 

5. Completely Discredited Agents:

 

According to the Mayo Clinic, the belief that shark cartilage contains a protein that inhibits tumor angiogenesis has now been shown to be false [29].  Sharks do get cancer, just like any other animal, contrary to the advertising claims we have seen for this product.

 

III.    DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS

A. High Fiber

 

No White Flour.

Whole Grains Only (wheat berries, millet, barley, brown rice, oat meal).

 (sprinkle Wheat Germ on your morning cereal)

All Fruits and Vegetables (esp. bananas, apples, oranges, jicama).

Any natural fiber laxative (e.g., Aloe Vera)  prn (as required) constipation.

 

A Harvard School of Public Health Health-Professionals Follow-up Study of nearly 31,000 men ages 40-75, who have been followed for four years to ascertain the role of nutrition in determining blood pressure, has found that those who routinely ate little or no fruit had a 46 percent greater risk of developing high blood pressure than did men who ate the equivalent of at least five apples daily. Indeed, fiber from fruits seemed to be more beneficial than that from vegetables or cereals. The other nutrients tested made little or no difference, including fats, alcohol, sodium, potassium, and magnesium.

 

Citrus fruits not only contain Vitamin C and folic acid, but also coumarin and D-limonene believe to protect against cancer.  Green leafy vegetables, like spinach, contain lutein which guards against chromosomal damage.  Orange vegetables like carrots, sweet potatoes, and pumpkin, as well as fruits like cantaloupe, papaya, and mango contain beta carotene, a precursor of Vitamin A that promotes normal cell differentiation.  (Recall that Vitamin A taken in great excess can be toxic, but there is no corresponding toxicity for excess beta carotene.)  Tomatoes contain lycopene, giving them there rich red color.  Indeed, there may be over 100 carotenoids in fruits and vegetables that play some role in fighting cancer. 

 

Cruciferous greens such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, or Brussels sprouts (brassicae) contain organo-sulfur compounds that help detoxify carcinogens that also protect against cancer.  Allium-based vegetables, including onions, garlic, scallions, leeks, and chives, inhibit bacteria in the stomach and reduce the formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines.  Soybeans contain an array of cancer fighters, including isoflavones, saponin, genistein, and phytoesterol.  In countries like Japan, the low rates for certain cancers may be attributable to this where soy is a dietary stable.  Finally, many fruits and vegetables contain Vitamin E, selenium, and flavonoids, compounds that have the ability to pump carcinogens out of cells and normalize cellular proliferation.  Five servings of fruits and vegetables a day is the best nutritional strategy, since foods seem to work best together. 

 

Amid all the interest in the medicinal benefits of food, we should never forget that plants synthesize these chemical defenses for their own selfish benefit; but there is no reason why we shouldn’t exploit them for ours.  Fruits are plants’ adaptation to the presence of animals in the same way that pretty colored flowers are plants’ adaptation to the presence of insects in the environment.  This heuristic is generally true with the obvious exception of poisonous mushrooms, which have adapted with a different agenda as a defense against being eaten.      

 

B. Low Fat

 

No Butter; No Margarine; No Hydrogenated Oils (Palm, Cottonseed, Coconut, etc.  In particular, never eat movie-theater popcorn popped in coconut oil.  It's like eating three days worth of fat in one sitting!).

However, moderate vegetable oils are acceptable (canola, walnut, safflower, sunflower, corn, sesame, soybean, olive, etc.).  (A new Greek study of Mediterranean women finds that olive oil in the diet may greatly reduce the risk of breast cancer [25 percent reduction].)

Reduce whole milk and dairy products as much as possible

(ice cream, cheese, etc.).

Do use Low-fat (or Non-fat) milk and yogurt

No egg yolks (egg whites, however, are OK)

Avoid french fries or potato chips

Lean red meat only (no bacon); Fish (especially salmon) is recommended;

Poultry (chicken or turkey) is acceptable

Never, never, never eat animal brains or anything that goes under the name "sweetbreads" (sheep thymus gland)

C. Total Calories

 

            Average less than 2,000 Kcal for "the standard 70 Kg man."  All calories are equivalent.  A tuna fish sandwich made with mayonnaise purchased in a health food store may actually be worse for your heart than a hamburger with mustard or ketchup bought at a MacDonalds Restaurant.  If you are overweight and think you need to diet, calculate your BMI (Body Mass Index) [BMI = Kg/(m)2]. First measure your weight (in pounds) and your height (in feet/inches) (your height squared is proportional to surface area), and then look your BMI up in the table below.

 

 


 

 

BMI

 

 

B

O

d

y

 

M

a

s

s

 

I

n

d

e

x

 

C

h

a

r

t

 

Weight>

Lbs.

1

00

1

05

1

10

1

15

1

20

1

25

1

30

1

35

1

40

1

45

1

50

1

55

1

60

1

65

1

70

1

75

1

80

1

85

1

90

1

95

2

00

2

05

2

10

2

15

5'0"

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

5'1"

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

36

37

38

39

40

5'2"

18

19

20

21

22

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

5'3"

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

5'4"

17

18

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

31

33

33

34

35

36

37

5'5"

16

17

18

19

20

20

21

22

23

24

25

25

26

27

28

29

30

30

31

32

33

34

35

35

5'6"

16

17

17

18

19

20

21

21

22

23

24

25

25

26

27

28

29

29

30

31

32

33

34

34

5'7"

15

16

17

18

18

19

20

21

22

22

23

24

25

25

26

27

28

29

29

30

31

32

33

33

5'8"

15

16

16

17

18

19

19

20

21

22

22

23

24

25

25

26

27

28

28

29

30

31

32

32

5'9"

14

15

16

17

17

18

19

20

20

21

22

22

23

24

25

25

26

27

28

28

29

30

31

31

5'10"

14

15

15

16

17

18

18

19

20

20

21

22

23

23

24

25

25

26

27

28

28

29

30

30

5'11"

14

14

15

16

16

17

18

18

19

20

21

21

22

23

23

24

25

25

26

27

28

28

29

30

6'0"

13

14

14

15

16

17

17

18

19

19

20

21

21

22

23

23

24

25

25

26

27

27

28

29

6'1"

13

13

14

15

15

16

17

17

18

19

19

20

21

21

22

23

23

24

25

25

26

27

27

28

6'2"

12

13

14

14

15

16

16

17

18

18

19

19

20

21

21

22

23

23

24

25

25

26

27

27

6'3"

12

13

13

14

15

15

16

16

17

18

18

19

20

20

21

21

22

23

23

24

25

25

26

26

6'4"

12

12

13

14

14

15

15

16

17

17

18

18

19

20

20

21

22

22

23

23

24

25

25

26

 

TABLE -- BMI Score Calculated from Height (feet/inches) and Weight (pounds)

 

           Legend:  Color Codes for Weight Ranges for different BMI Scores …

 

 

Body Type

BMI Range

 

Underweight

 BMI <  18.5

 

Healthy Weight

 BMI = [18.5 - 24.9]

 

Overweight

 BMI = [25.0 - 29.9]

 

Obese

 BMI = [30.0 - 39.9]

 

Extremely Obese

 BMI >  40.0

 

 

If your BMI > 30 [or > 25 if accompanied by one of the following: High Blood Pressure, Diabetes, Coronary Artery Disease, Hyperlipidemia, or Stroke] then you definitely need to reduce your caloric intake and/or increase your exercise program.  As BMI increases, so does blood pressure and total cholesterol, while the level of HDL (good cholesterol) tends to decline also.  You should weigh yourself monthly, preferably on the same bathroom scale. If you are not maintaining at least a four-pound-per-month weight loss, your regimen is not really effective and you should stop fooling yourself.  That's when you need to go see your physician or get some professional help.

D. Miscellaneous

1. Wines and Spirits

 

            Interestingly, one or two glasses of wine (either red or white) per day at the beginning of a meal have been shown to be beneficial to one's heart; obviously, other alcoholic beverages (beer, spirits) are to be imbibed in moderation.  Never take more than a few ounces at any one sitting.  Needless to say, never ever drive when intoxicated, even if only a little bit.

2. Tobacco Products

 

All tobacco products are absolutely contraindicated in any form, including cigarettes (low tar/filter brands provide no real protection), pipes, cigars, snuff, and chewing tobacco. There exists a nicotine-based chewing gum to help break this unsavory habit. Studies have revealed that cigarettes are insidious instruments for the delivery of nicotine by way of the lungs to the blood stream where it is unconsciously titrated by the addict to a "therapeutic" concentration. Of course, it is extremely dangerous to smoke while simultaneously wearing a nicotine-replacement transdermal patch.  Even slight exposure to "second-hand" smoke has now been shown to be deleterious to one's health, not just for the child-to-be of a pregnant mother.

3. Caffeine

 

Coffee, Tea, and Soft Drinks (Coke, etc.) are acceptable in moderation. Studies have shown a positive correlation between coffee-drinking and alertness with few side effects. Use "decaf" after dinner if "regular" coffee keeps you up. 

4. Green Tea

 

Speaking of tea, we should not neglect to mention that green tea, derived from the dried leaves of the evergreen shrub Camellia sinensis, long-time favorite in the Orient, but gaining popularity in the West, contain polyphenols (Phenol EpiGalloCatechin Gallate [EGCG]) alleged to prevent cancer, protect your heart from atherosclerosis, lowers serum cholesterol and triglycerides with improved HDL/LDL ratios, exhibits antioxidant properties, decreases hypertension, possibly due to the sedative action or the neurotransmitter GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid), is an antibacterial (cholera and typhus), decreases tooth decay, and is an antiviral (influenza).  The antioxidant effects of green tea don’t rely on caffeine, since neither coffee nor caffeine alone provide the same benefits.  Neither are other teas as good as green tea.  Oolong tea is semi-fermented, while traditional black tea is "fermented" through a non-alcoholic process to convert the tannins contained in the leaves, and in this process something is lost. 

5. Prescription Drugs

 

Try to minimize multiple prescriptions. At least one physician must be aware of all your "meds" so as to minimize side effects. Furthermore, do not allow obsolete prescriptions to accumulate in your medicine chest; instead, just throw them away when.

 

IV.     ANNUAL CHECKUPS

 

Obviously, children need pediatric care to get their routine periodic vaccinations (DPT [Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis {Whooping Cough}], OPV [Oral Polio], MMR [Measles, Mumps, Rubella {German Measles}], HepB [Hepatitis B], Hib [Haemophilias influenzae Type b], BCG [Tuberculosis], Chicken Pox [The FDA has approved the Merck vaccine and it is now routinely available], etc.) and to make sure they fall within the standard growth profiles for height and weight. Pregnant females obviously need prenatal care, including special vitamins and a couple of routine ultrasounds. Otherwise, however, we dont believe that healthy young adults really need to see a doctor every year. On the other hand, after age 50, one should check with one's family physician on a regular basis every couple of years or so, to measure blood pressure and so forth. A standard laboratory blood screen and stool sample for occult bleeding is also useful. A blood screen may detect lab values outside normal physiological limits (modulo lab error) for one's age (not just outside clinical limits for pathology).  As mentioned earlier, this is recommended for fine tuning the doses of one's dietary supplements. After age 50, getting a Flu Vaccines is increasingly important.  Males: A rectal exam for early detection of prostate cancer (a new laboratory test that compares the free and bound levels of PSA will prove increasingly important); Females: Annual PAP smears after age 21 as well as biannual mammograms (or even every three years) after age 50.

 

V.      ORAL HYGIENE AND DENTAL VISITS

 

Seventy-five percent of adults in our country will be affected by bleeding gums secondary to gingivitis in their lifetime. An antibacterial mouthwash (Scope, Listerine, etc.) should be gargled/swished at least twice a day (bid) and three or four times a day (tid or qid), if possible, in addition to dental flossing once a day, and brushing after meals, while at home.  An anti-plaque rinse post-flossing is urged (e.g., Oral-B).  Prophylactic cleaning by a professional dental hygienist to remove plaque build-up should be done twice a year without fail.

 

 

 

 

VI.    FIRST AID

 


Keep standard $5.00 first-aid kits handy-- Put at least one in your bathroom medicine chest and others in the glove compartments of your car(s).  Get training in CPR, if possible. Learn the Heimlich Maneuver (anti-choking).  In California, the Poison Control Center is at 1-800-876-4766.

 

VII.   THE NEED FOR REGULAR EXERCISE

 

Schedule time in your day for moderate daily exercise, required at least five days per week (30 min. per day of increased cardiovascular exertion with pulse > 100 bpm); walking, swimming, tennis, aerobics, etc., but not golf  (too little exertion) or jogging (too much joint stress). One must perform substantial exercise at least once a week (weight lifting, nautilus machines, etc.). A standard weight-lifting training bench is sold for $[150-200].  A stair master or treadmill can be bought for $[400-900].  A complete home gym that allows two persons to work out simultaneously can be had for $1,000.  For someone who would benefit from tracking their pulse while exercising, a heart-rate monitor, which can be worn like a wrist watch, can be purchased for $99.  Calculate your BMI (Body Mass Index) in kilograms per (meter squared) from the Table above.  Obesity is defined as a BMI >= 30, which translates as [20-30] percent over ideal body weight.  Obesity will increase morbidity and mortality (five years off your expected life span).  Between [1970 - 1990] there has been a consistent increase in the percentage of Americans classified as obese, which has now reached an alarming 33.4 percent of the general population. $[30-40] billion is spent on weight control in the U.S. alone.  Some people will deliberately raise their blood pressure and consume extra gas as they compete (like vampires) for a close-in parking space in the local shopping mall.  After all, it may save them a few walking calories. 

 

Western Civilization is the main culprit contributing to this disease process, a side effect of our sedentary life style with its unprecedented proliferation of calorically-dense foods.  There is a [20-50] percent genetic penetrance or susceptibility to gain weight by eating in the presence of excess food, whether one is hungry or not (satiation signals, if any, are ignored).  Recall that these genes were selected for during the legacy of our hunter/gatherer past, when it was advantageous to feast, since famine could always be just around the corner.  "Gathering" consumes fewer calories than "hunting," but the density of calories in berries or nuts is less than that of meat, and human males and females specialized in these occupations, respectively.  If you really care to get into the details, but don’t want to be weighed both in air and submerged in water, a Total Body Fat Analyzer can be purchased for $180 (it is basically a fancy scale that calculates body fat in seconds using a patented foot-pad design).    

 

VIII. THE FREQUENCY OF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE

 


Unless otherwise contraindicated by a physician, for the sake of optimal health, the frequency of sexual intercourse should on the average be daily (not weekly), with appropriate (HIV negative) willing partner(s).  (Of course, partner [singular], rather than partners [plural] is to be preferred for the sake of reducing emotional stress.) The adjective "willing" in the above characterization of partner is equally important. "Willingness" may be a matter of degree, while "unwillingness" is not.  However, the time of day-- morning, noon, or night-- is completely unimportant.  In our view, there is no reasonable excuse for the observed decline in the frequency of sexual intercourse with age (probably laziness).  Most importantly, there is no requirement for orgasm by either partner, and such cannot count as an excuse for multiple days of abstinence-- the proverbial "Not tonight Dear... I have a headache." Also, please do not fall into the trap of perpetually striving for "simultaneous orgasm," a largely mythological quest that can significantly interfere with an otherwise good relationship.

 

A recent survey of American sexual behavior performed by researchers from the University of Chicago [25] has shown that, despite the media sizzle, most Americans have sexual intercourse an average of once a week, and they are largely monogamous.  Indeed, less than one-third of Americans aged 18 to 59 have sex with a partner more than twice a week.  From the point of view of optimal health, this is far too little.

 

On the other hand, in the absence of a willing partner for sexual intercourse, masturbation may be more healthful than pure abstinence.  In the December 1997 British Medical Journal, Dr. George Davey Smith of the University of Bristol studied 918 male residents from the Welsh village of Caerphilly between the ages of 45 and 59 over a ten-year period.  The men were divided into three groups, including (1) those who engaged in sexual intercourse more than twice a week; (2) those who engaged in sexual intercourse less than once a month; and (3) those who fell somewhere in between.  At the end of the study, those men who had sex less than once-a-month were twice as likely to die over the follow-up period as those who had the most frequent sex. Men in the intermediate group were 1.6 times as likely to die.  Attempting to establish a "cause-and-effect" relationship between the frequency of sex and longevity may be difficult, however.  It may well be that those men who had sex more often were healthier to start with and therefore destined to live longer than the other groups.  Nevertheless, there is plenty of reason to believe that safe sex does promote overall longevity, and it is to be recommended in whatever form. 

 

IX.    HOW TO REDUCE OR AVOID UNNECESSARY STRESS

 

How can you tell if you're under stress? You may be the last to recognize it. Your friends and family may see its effect on you long before you do. Signs are difficulty in sleeping, changes in eating habits, increased use of drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, chronic irritability, short-fused anger, increased anxiety, and frequent physical complaints.

 

Stress is defined as the feeling of tension or pressure that naturally accumulates in everyone's life. How you handle it determines the extent of the negative effect it can have on your health and happiness. We all fail exams at school or get negative progress reports from time to time. Look at it this way: "If you can't point to a recent failure, you're not functioning up to your full capacity!"

 

Now take the following short quiz (31 questions):

 

[Score points as follows: "Never" or "No" = 0; "Once in a while" (1-3 times a year) = 1; "A few times a week" = 3; "Always or daily" = 5; For Yes/No answers, Yes = 4.]

 

 

1. Do you eat on the run or in restaurants a lot?

 


2. Are you plagued by a run-down feeling or sense of illness?

 

3. Are you normally too tired to exercise?

 

4. Do you have difficulty sleeping (or staying asleep)?

 

5. Do you fall asleep at inappropriate times?

 

6. Do you have difficulty saying "No"?

 

7. Do you feel out of control in your life?

 

8. Do you eat, drink, or smoke compulsively whenever you are nervous?

 

9. Do you skip meals to lose weight?

 

10. Does your weight go up and down more than a few pounds a month?

 

11. Do you feel unusually anxious when driving on freeways (especially during rush hour)?

 

12. Have you had a divorce or custody battle recently (last five years)?

 

13. Have you moved to a new location recently (in the last year)?

 

14. Have you changed jobs recently without an increase in salary (last 6 months)?

 

15. Have you been involved in an automobile accident recently (last 6 months)?

 

16. Have you been involved in a law suit recently (in the last 6 months)?

 

17. Have you been hospitalized for any reason or had a diagnosis of a chronic medical condition recently (in the last year)?

 

18. Are you single? Or if married, not happily married?

 

19. Do you have any children at home less than three years old?

 

20. Have you worked more than 60 hours overtime recently (in last 6 months)?

 

21. Do you own your own business?

 

22. Do you watch television more than 5 hours a day, as your only form of entertainment?

 


23. Do you have an inadequate support network (family/friends)?

 

24. Have you gotten a speeding ticket in the last 3 months?

 

25. Have you been arrested by the police for any reason in the last year?

 

26. You don't belong to any church or attend only once-a-year.

 

27. You haven't been on a two-week vacation in five years or more?

 

28. Have you lost a spouse or a first-degree relative recently (last 6 months)?

 

29. You don't own a pet (dog, cat, etc.).

 

30. Do you live in a place where it snows heavily?

 

31. Have you been investigated by the Federal Government in the last 6 months, having hired an "illegal alien" to take care of your children?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Score

Interpretation

0-15

Your life is a "bowl of cherries." You're not sufficiently challenged.

16-30

Congratulations!  You're well adapted (your risk-taking is well calculated).

31-40

You have an average ability to cope with stress.

41-99

You are experiencing a high level of stress. It is important to get advice about how to change your lifestyle or daily habits in order to diminish your rate of stress-provoking events.

100-135       

Your life is a "veil of tears." It's time to move on to a new rose garden.

 

What to do if you need help? Visit your family doctor; seek qualified professionals at your job, trusted clergy members, or health-care professionals at a mental health center. [Note: The above test was derived in part from Pharmex, a Division of ABP Co.]

 

Also, try to reduce pathological bursts of Adrenaline and cortisol (the natural stress hormones in the body) by avoiding routine emergency deadlines; Stress constricts blood vessels and is known to cause Variant or Prinzmetal's Angina (angina at rest with S-T elevation on EKG, as distinguished from the more typical exertional form of angina pectoris with S-T depression).  Long-term high concentrations of cortisol in ones blood are corrosive to all the tissues of the body.

 


We all know that being the parent of a young child brings its share of stress.  Hurting your child is never a long-term solution.  The next time you lose your patience, try some of these tips: Close your eyes, take a deep breath, count to ten, and give yourself a time out.  Think about why you are angry... Is it your childs fault or is your child a convenient target for your own anger?  Then, if it makes sense, put your child in a time-out chair (one minute for each year of age).

 

A significant area of "Type-A" stress for those who live in big cities is the need for freeway driving.  Go with the flow (or lack of it)... Allow extra time to get from one place to another.  Whenever possible think of public transportation.  It is important not to be frenetic in the car.  Car phones should be saved for emergencies rather than something to do while you’re driving.  Don’t tail gate.  Pick one lane and stay there.  Treat the gas and brake pedals as gently as you would treat a fine crystal wine glass. And this is the toughest rule of all: Ignore drivers who cut you off or are otherwise rude.  Their accident rate will always be higher than yours.

 

Sound sleep is just as important as exercise in reducing stress levels and maintaining your diurnal rhythms.  Try to avoid worry (or arguments) at the normal time of retiring.  This leads to insomnia, as you endlessly rehearse your moves and countermoves, or even premature awakening, like at 5:00 AM.  Time spent in REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep is much more beneficial for one’s mental health, and sleeping pills interfere with the REM ratio.  Use melatonin or even alcohol (a double shot of whiskey) before using a barbiturate.   Get at least seven hours (there are individual differences, of course) to avoid sleep deprivation (the Exxon Valdez effect).  Try to get up and go to sleep at the same time each day, (I know this is hard) even on weekends [76].  Excessive snoring (airway obstruction leading to turbulent flow) may be a symptom of sleep apnea, which is disastrous for blood/brain oxygenation and needs the professional evaluation of a sleep research center with oximeter and EEG monitoring.  Bright-light therapy before bedtime and on awakening is important for nursing home patients or anyone who shows signs of depression.  It is a myth that the elderly always sleep worse than their younger counterparts.  If you look at older adults who are very healthy, they rarely have sleep problems.  Those patients with a sleep impairment called fragmented sleep [intermittent disruptions of 3 to 10 seconds] secondary to back pain, arthritis, sleep apnea, chronic urinary problems, Restless Leg Syndrome, or whatever, impairs pain pathways for the entire next day making the subject much more sensitive to pain and consequently much more irritable. [131]   

 

Additional Principles to help reduce stress:

 

1. Q: How do you eat an elephant? A: One bite at a time;

2. Worry in a straight line;

3. Tell a joke;

4.  Never let your daughter marry a man who goes by the nickname AAce.@

X.      A BRIEF WORD ABOUT CHARLATANS

 

Don't be deceived by the wide array of mercenaries and quack practitioners who exist everywhere, both historical and contemporary. There was a time in the 1930s when it was fashionable to drink Radium in distilled water as a therapeutic agent!  Really?  See Ref. [34]

 


In their recent book opposing the untoward practices of our modern health food industry, Drs. Barrett and Herbert define a quack as anyone who fraudulently pretends to medical skills they do not possess.  They distinguish among three types: dumb quacks (ignorant), deluded quacks (self-righteous, true believers), and lastly dishonest quacks (genuine con artists, confidence men, swindlers, mountebanks, or grifters).  Then, they go on to outline thirty ways to spot a quack, including (1) exclusive reliance on anecdotes and testimonials in support of extravagant claims; (2) display of unrecognized credentials; (3) claims that they are persecuted  by orthodox medicine or that their work is suppressed because it is controversial; (4) intimidation of their critics due to threats of law suits or litigation;  (5) encouragement of patients to use their political support to publicize their treatment methods; and (6) charismatic individuals capable of exploiting any "placebo effect" to the maximum advantage.  (See Chapter 2 of Ref. [30]).

 

In the 1940s, Cellular Therapy (injections of fetal lamb tissues) was promoted by Dr. Paul Niehans, based on testimonials from the rich and famous, despite the fact that no credible scientific evidence was ever provided that it worked. In the 1950s, Anna Aslan, a Rumanian physician, evangelized the miracle drug Gerovital H3 [41], whose active ingredient was nothing more than procaine (the routine local anesthetic that dentists use to numb your jaw before drilling into a bad tooth). Their disciples continue to proselytize these frauds even today [2, 23].  For example, it has been suggested that the metabolism of procaine into its intermediate constituents (PABA [ParaAminoBenzoic Acid] and DEAE [DiEthyl-Amino Ethanol] ) may explain its alleged benefits, although DEAE, and its cousin DMAE to which it may metabolize, can hardly have all of the affects that are attributed to Gerovital.

 

Shops in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Taipei, Seoul, and elsewhere in the orient do a brisk business in rhinoceros horns.  For poachers, a pound of horn can fetch upward of $10,000.  Folk tradition dating back thousands of years asserts that the horn, when ground into a fine powder, can cure a variety of ills, promote longevity, and eliminate sexual impotence.  Where did this bizarre idea come from?  The mystique of the rhino is based, in part, on the size of the male genitalia and the vigor with which these two-ton animals copulate, beginning with an orchestrated horn-butting ritual that appears to resemble combat. 

 


In Houston, Dr. Stanislaw R. Burzynski, a 53 year old Polish-born physician, defends himself against the academic medical establishment, the FDA, and various medical insurance providers on the grounds that ACopernicus, Galileo, and Pasteur were persecuted by ignorant contemporaries when they challenged the traditional assumptions of their day.@  However, his antineoplaston theory of cancer begs the question of mechanisms when talking superficially about Abiochemical microswitches that derepress cancer genes@ when it is, in fact, based on a patented derivative of amino acids and small peptides, for which there is no rigorous controlled animal or clinical trials to support such claims.  Although he has treated 3,000 patients over 20 years, his successes are all poignant testimonials from ardent supporters who treat him as a folk hero.  There is no mention of the expected number of spontaneous remissions that should be observed in this population after no intervention whatsoever.  Sometimes, for reasons not fully understood, the immune surveillance system suddenly Awakes up@ after the patient’s tumor mass exceeds a critical threshold and Acures@ him or her, in spite of, rather than because of, the aggressive radiation and chemotherapeutic treatments provided by unwitting oncologists.  Be wary also when you are told in response to this sort of objection that traditional clinical trials will be "getting under way soon." You could be finessed, as I was years ago in 1972 by the master spoon-bending prestidigitator Uri Geller.

 

The argument against the FDA that they are allegedly protecting the interests of giant international pharmaceutical companies at the expense of promising new treatments sounds familiar, and was echoed by the AIDS-patient community not too long ago.  The counter argument is that "Dr. Burzynski is preying on the desperation of the terminally ill." The good doctor has grossed $40 million from 1988 to 1994 based on his proprietary treatment regimen.  True to form, he claims that "if he is put out of business by the State or Federal authorities, his patients will be the ones sentenced to suffer and die-- not him."

 

Another discredited cancer cure is known as Laetrile, amygdaline, or sometimes Vitamin  B-17 and is found in apricot pits.  It contains approximately six percent cyanide, an extremely toxic substance. Thus, taking excessive amounts of this compound can be dangerous, and if used improperly, can be fatal. The main medical criticism commonly directed at laetrile is that patients with potentially curable cancer may choose to take laetrile while avoiding conventional treatments, waiting until it is too late to gain benefit from an effective therapy.

 

Following in the tradition of spiritual healers and religious crusaders like Tilden, Swaggart, Jim and Tammy-Faye Baker, Oral Roberts, various so-called "psychic surgeons," and so on, the latest in this series of evangelical healers is The Rev. Benny Hinn of the World Outreach Center, a Ministry based in Orlando, Florida but which is really a traveling road show filling sports arenas with the faithful in all parts of the country.  Visually-dramatic on-stage swooning and physical collapse on cue of those who are allegedly healed by a "touch-of-the-master" lends an aura of mystique about this religious promotion for profit. 

 

            The practitioners of homeopathy claim to use only natural substances-- raw bovine testicles, crushed honey bees, Belladonna, cadmium, sulfur, mercury, gold, poison nut (nux vomica), hemlock, silica, monkshood, salt, mountain daisy, venom of the Bushmaster snake, arsenic, Spanish fly, rattlesnake venom, dog milk, poison ivy, and more. Some of these substances are harmless, while others obviously can be quite toxic (depending on the dose).  However, the method of dilution proposed by these practitioners leaves the concentrations of all of these substances (harmless or toxic) at less than one atom (or molecule) per therapeutic dose. If there is no active ingredient remaining at the molecular level (except perhaps for the spiritual memory of the original substance) can there be a rigorous cause-and-effect relationship between therapy and symptoms? The counter-argument of homeopathy is that there have been millions of satisfied patients over the last 200 years, and they should not be obliged to meet the standards of modern scientific medicine. On the other hand, extraordinary claims demand extraordinary evidence. A miracle, by definition, violates the laws of physics. A miraculous cure is probably not a miracle at all. If something seems too amazing to be true, it probably isn't. Our demand is that claims of diagnosis and cure be reproducible and supported with good empirical evidence, even if a model-based explanation for the phenomenon in question has not yet been worked out. Homeopaths are seductive in their approach, but they are charlatans nevertheless, as much as astrologers, numerologists, phrenologists, palm readers, and dowsing - all clear examples of pseudoscience. [87]

 

Among the strongest possible treatments of all medical interventions is the "power of suggestion," especially suggestion by a white-coated charismatic evangelist surrounded by disciples and previously-cured minions with an associated "system of hocus pocus" (astrology, numerology, palmistry, phrenology, take your pick).  A cute example of this is in weight-reduction treatments for the overweight.  It is naive to imagine that a proposed diet, untested against external controls, really works just because the scale shows that the patient has lost weight.  It turns out that all obese patients lose weight when you simply tell them that they will, at least for a few weeks before they gain it back again.  So the proper delta of comparison should not be the "initial weight," but must always be with respect to a sufficient number of external placebo controls, in evaluating a hypothetical treatment scientifically. 

 


Let me conclude by giving just one more modern example: According to Forbes Magazine author/lecturer/physician Deepak Chopra, mentor to Michael Jackson and rage of the "New Age," has so far earned more than $3 million selling books, mail-order audiotapes, oils, and herbal preparations. Chopra boasts, “I’m 47 chronologically, but 25 biologically” in his in-depth course on "Quantum Healing," based on his best-selling book Ageless Body, Timeless Mind: The Quantum Alternative to Growing Old [35].  His lectures typically cost $119 for an all day seminar for 400 persons, where you will learn that "if you selectively breathe through your left nostril, you'll open up your right-brain thinking... The mind is in all the cells of our body; you cannot localize the mind in the brain." Dr. Chopra has recently persuaded the NIH to grant his new Institute for Human Potential and Mind/Body Medicine $30,000 to study "Ayurvedic Medicine." Stay leery of  "proofs by testimonial."  Enough said about charlatans.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


REFERENCES:

 

1. Leonard Hayflick, How and Why We Age (Random House, Inc., New York, 1994).

 

2. Alex Comfort, Say Yes to Old Age: Developing a Positive Attitude Toward Aging (Crown Publishers, New York; 1990).

 

3. Ross Pelton and Taffy Clarke Pelton, Mind Food and Smart Pills: A Source Book for the Vitamins that can Increase Intelligence, Improve Memory, and Prevent Brain Aging (Doubleday, Inc., New York; 1989).

 

4. Ward Dean and John Morgenthaler, Smart Drugs and Nutrients: How to Improve your Memory and Increase Your Intelligence Using the Latest Discoveries in Neuroscience (B&J Publications, Santa Cruz, California; 1991).

 

5. Ward Dean, John Morgenthaler, and Steven W. Fowkes, Smart Drugs II: The Next Generation: New Drugs and Nutrients to Improve Your Memory and Increase Your Intelligence (Health Freedom Publications, Menlo Park, California; 1993).

 

6. Lord Lee-Benner, Turning Back the Aging Clock (World Health Foundation, Newport Beach, California; 1990).

 

7. Lord Lee-Benner, Physician's Guide to Free Radicals, Immunity, and Aging (World Health Foundation, Newport Beach, California; 1990).

 

8. H. Winter Griffith, Complete Guide to Vitamins, Minerals, and Supplements (Fisher Books, Tucson, Arizona; 1988).

 

9. Ewan Cameron and Linus Pauling, Cancer and Vitamin C (Camino Book, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 1993).

 

10.  Richard A. Passwater, The Longevity Factor: Chromium Picolinate (Keats Publishing, Inc., New Canaan, Connecticut; 1993) and Gary Evans, Chromium Picolinate: Everything You Need to Know (Avery Publishing Group; 1996).

 

11.  Emile G. Bliznakov and Gerald L. Hunt, The Miracle Nutrient: Coenzyme Q-10 (Bantam Books, New York; 1986).

 

 

 

12. Emile G. Bliznakov, "Coenzyme Q, the Immune System, and Aging," Vol. 3, pp. 311-323, Biomedical and Clinical Aspects of Coenzyme Q, ed by K. Folkers and Y. Yamamura (Elsevier, North-Holland Biomedical Press, 1981).

 

13. L. Stephen Coles and Steven B. Harris, "Co-Enzyme Q-10 and Lifespan Extension," Proc. of the 2nd Annual Conference on Anti-Aging Medicine and Biomedical Technology for the Year 2010 (Las Vegas, Nevada; December 4-6, 1994).

 

14. Alastair Dow, Deprenyl: The Anti-Aging Drug (Hallberg Publishing Corp.; Delavan, Wisconsin 1993).

 

15.  Eugenio Mocchegiani, Danielle Bulian, Lory Santarelli, Alberto Tibaldi, Walter Pierpaoli, and Nicola Fabris, Gerontology Research Department, Italian Nutritional Research Center on Aging (INRCA), "The Zinc-Melatonin Interrelationship: A Working Hypothesis," pp. 298-307, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1994).

 

16.  Thomas J. Moore, Lifespan: Who Lives Longer and Why? (Simon and Schuster, New York; 1993).

 

17. David W. E. Smith, Human Longevity (Oxford University Press, England; 1993).

 

18. Joseph Bonner and William Harris, Healthy Aging: New Directions in Health, Biology and Medicine (Hunter House, Inc., Claremont, California; 1988).

 

19. P. Hausman, The Right Dose: How to Take Vitamins and Minerals Safely (Ballentine Books, New York; 1987).

 

20. E. Mindell, Vitamin Bible (Warner Books, New York; 1979).

 

21.  E. Somer, The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals (Harper Collins, New York; 1992).

 

22.  A. Ulene, The Vitamin Strategy (Ulysses Press, Berkeley, California; 1994).

 

23. James Harvey Young, American Health Quackery (Princeton University Press, New Jersey; 1992).

 

24.  Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw, Life Extension: A Practical Scientific Approach (Warner Books, New York; 1982) and The Life Extension Companion (Warner Books, New York; 1984).

 


25.  Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Gina Kolata, Sex in America: A Definitive Survey (Little, Brown, and Company, New York; 1994).

 

26.  Isadore Rosenfeld, Doctor, What Should I Eat?  Nutrition Prescriptions for Ailments in Which Diet Can Really Make a Difference (Random House, New York; 1994).

 

27. Hans J. Kugler, et al, Life Extenders and Memory Boosters (Health Quest Publications, Reno, Nevada; 1993).

 

28.  Hans J. Kugler, Tripping the Clock: A Practical Guide to Anti-Aging and Rejuvenation (Health Quest Publications, Reno, Nevada; 1993).

 

29.  "By the Way Doctor," Harvard Health Letter, p. 7, Vol. 20, No. 4 (February 1995).

 

30.  Stephen Barrett and Victor Herbert, The Vitamin Pushers: How the AHealth Food@ Industry Is Selling America a Bill of Goods (Prometheus Books; Amherst, New York; 1994).

 

31.  Kenneth H. Cooper, Antioxidant Revolution (Thomas Nelson, Inc., Nashville, Tennessee; 1994).

 

32.  Roy L. Walford and Lisa Walford, The Anti-Aging Plan: Strategies and Recipes for Extending Your Healthy Years (Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, New York; 1994).

 

33.  Carolyn Reuben, Antioxidants-- Your Complete Guide: Fight Cancer and Heart Disease, Improve your Memory, and Slow the Aging Process (Prima Publishing; Rocklin, California; 1995).

 

34.  Roger M. Macklis, AThe Great Radium Scandal,@ Scientific American, Vol. 269, pp. 94-99 (August 1993).

 

35. Deepak Chopra, Perfect Health: The Complete Mind/Body Guide (Harmony Books, New York; 1991).  A CD-ROM title is now being planned of  Dr. Chopra’s work by Geismar and Groth of Culver City, California.

 

36.  Richard F. Heller and Rachael F. Heller, Healthy for Life: The Scientific Breakthrough Program for Looking, Feeling, and Staying Healthy Without Deprivation (Dutton Books, New York; 1995).

 

37.  Ross Pelton and Lee Overholser, Alternatives in Cancer Therapy: The Complete Guide to Non-Traditional Treatments (Fireside Books, New York; 1994).

 

38. Michael Colgan, The New Nutrition: Medicine for the Millennium (Cl Publications, San Diego, California; 1994).

 

39. Burton Goldberg, Alternative Medicine: The Definitive Guide (Future Medicine Publishing, Inc., Puyallup, Washington; 1994).

 

 


40. Herbert Bailey, GH3: Will It Keep you Young Longer? (Bantam Books, Inc., New York, New York; 1977).

 

41. John Morgenthaler and Dan Joy, Better Sex Through Chemistry: A Guide to the New Prosexual Drugs and Nutrients (Smart Publications, Petaluma, California; 1994).

 

42. John Thomas, Young Again: How to Reverse the Aging Process: A Personal Guide to Ageless Living (Plexus Press, Kelso, Washington; 1994).

 

43. Jean Carper, Stop Aging Now: The Ultimate Plan for Staying Young and Reversing the Aging Process (Harper Collins, New York; 1995).

 

44. Ray Sahelian, Melatonin: Nature’s Sleeping Pill (Be Happier Press, Marina del Rey, California; 1995).

 

45.   Steven J. Bock and Michael Boyette, Stay Young the Melatonin Way: The Natural Plan for Better Sex, Better Sleep, Better Health, and Longer Life (Dutton Books, Penguin Books, New York; 1995).

 

46. Walter Pierpaoli, William Regelson, and Carol Colman, The Melatonin Miracle: Nature's Age-Reversing, Disease-Fighting, Sex-Enhancing Hormone (Simon and Schuster, New York; 1995).

 

47. Russel J. Reiter and Jo Robinson, Melatonin: Your Body's Natural Wonder Drug (Bantam Books, New York; 1995).

 

48. Judy Shabert and Nancy Ehrlich, The Ultimate Nutrient: Glutamine: The Essential Nonessential Amino Acid (Avery Publishing Group, Garden City Park, New York; 1994).

 

49. Ralph Golan, Optimal Wellness: Where Mainstream and Alternative Medicine Meet (1995).

 

50. Robert E. Ricklefs and Caleb E. Finch, Aging: A Natural History (Scientific American Library, New York, NY; 1995).

 

51. Michael Fossel, Reversing Human Aging (William Morrow and Company, Inc., New York; 1996).

 

52. Julian M. Whitaker, Reversing Heart Disease: A Vital New Program to Prevent, Treat, and Eliminate Cardiac Problems Without Surgery (Warner Books, New York; 1985).

 

53. Julian M. Whitaker,  Dr. Whitakers Guide to Natural Healing: Americas Leading AWellness Doctor@ Shares his Secrets for Lifelong Health! (Prima Publishing, Rocklin, California; 1995).

 


54.  Stephen T. Sinatra, Lose to Win: A Cardiologist’s Guide to Weight Loss and Nutritional Healing (Lincoln-Bradley Publishing Group, New York; 1992).

 

55. Stephen T. Sinatra, Optimum Health: A Cardiologists Prescription (Lincoln-Bradley Publishing Group, New York; 1996).

56.  Daniel Georgakas, The Methuselah Factors: Learning from the Worlds Longest Living People (Academy Chicago Publishers, Chicago, IL; 1995).

 

57. Carol Orlock, The End of Aging: How Medical Science is Changing our Concept of Old Age (Birch Lane Press, New York; 1995).

 

58. Earl Mindell, Earl Mendel’s Anti-Aging Bible (Simon and Schuster, New York; 1996).

 

59.  Andrew Weil, Spontaneous Healing: How  to Discover and Enhance your Bodys Natural Ability to Maintain and Heal Itself (Alfred A. Knopf, New York; 1995).

 

60.  Andrew Weil, Eight Weeks to Optimum Health: A Proven Program for Taking Full Advantage of Your Body’s Natural Healing Power (Alfred A. Knopf, New York: 1997).

 

61. Harvard Health Letter Special Report, Vitamins and Minerals (Harvard University Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; 1995).

 

62.  Alternative Medicine: Expanding Medical Horizons, A Report to the NIH on Alternative Medical Systems and Practices in the United States (Workshop on Alternative Medicine, Chantilly, Virginia; September 14-16, 1992)(U.S. Government Printing Office; Washington, D.C.; 1995).

 

63. Ronald M. Klatz, ed., Advances in Anti-Aging Medicine, Vol. 1 (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Larchmont, New York; 1996).

 

64.  Carol Kahn, Beyond the Helix: DNA and the Quest for Longevity (Times Books, New York; 1985).

 

65.  Lewis Wolpert, The Triumph of the Embryo (Oxford University Press, New York; 1991).

 

66.  Kenneth R. Pelletier, Longevity: Fulfilling Our Biological Potential (A Merloyd Lawrence Book, Delacorte Press, New York; 1981).

 

67. Barry Sears and Bill Lawren, Enter the Zone (Harper Collins/Regan Books, New York; 1995).

 

68. Barry Sears, Mastering the Zone (Harper Collins, New York; 1997).

 


69. Melvin R. Werbach, Nutritional Influences on Illness: A Sourcebook of Clinical Research, 2nd Edition (Third Line Press, Inc., Tarzana, California; 1996).

 

70.  Ray Sahelian, DHEA: A Practical Guide (Avery Publishing Group, Garden City Park, New York; 1996).

 

71.  William Regelson and Carol Colman, The Super Hormone Promise: Nature’s Antidote to Aging (Simon and Schuster, New York; 1996).

 

72.  Stephen Cherniske, The DHEA Breakthrough: Look Younger, Live Longer, Feel Better (Ballantine Books, New York; 1996).

 

73.  Ronald Klatz and Carol Kahn, Grow Young With HGH (Harper Collins, New York; 1997).

 

74.  Ronald Klatz and Robert Goldman, Stopping the Clock (Keats Publishing, Inc., New Canaan, Connecticut; 1966).)

 

75.  Ronald Klatz and Robert Goldman, The Science of Anti-Aging Medicine (American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine, Colorado Springs, Colorado; 1996).

 

76. Maureen Salaman and James F. Scheer, Foods that Heal (Statford Publishing, Menlo Park, California; 1989). 

 

77.  Sonia Ancholi Israel, All I want is a Good Night’s Sleep (Psychiatry Department; UCSD Medical School; La Jolla, California; 1996).

 

78.  Herbert Benson and Eileen M. Stuart, Wellness Book: The Comprehensive Guide to Maintaining Health and Treating Stress-Related Illness (Birch Lane Press, New York; 1992).

 

79.  Herbert Benson, Timeless Healing: The Power and Biology of Belief (Simon and Schuster, New York; 1996).

 

80. Philip Kitcher, The Lives to Come: The Genetic Revolution and Human Possibilities (Simon and Schuster, New York; 1996).

 

81. Steven N. Austad, Why We Age: What Science Is Discovering about the Bodys Journey through Life (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York; 1997).

 

82. Simon Margolis and Lora Brown Wilder, ANutrition and Longevity@ (The Johns Hopkins White Papers, Baltimore, Maryland; 1998).

 

83.  Mary Ann OHara, AReview of the Twelve Most Commonly Used Herbs,@ Archives of Family Medicine (November 9, 1998).


 

84. Lucinda G. Miller, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Archives of Internal Medicine (November 9, 1998).

 

85.           &nbs p;  Karlis Ullis and Greg Ptacek, Age Right: Turn Back the Clock with a Proven Personalized Anti-Aging Program (Simon and Schuster, New York; 1999).

 

86.  L. Stephen Coles and David Steinman, Nature's Ultimate Anti-Cancer Pill: The IP-6 with Inositol Question and Answer Book: How to Use Nature's Ultimate Anti-Cancer Pill for the Prevention and Treatment of All Forms of Cancer (Freedom Press; Topanga, California; 1999).

 

87.     Homeopathy is Mahlon W. Wagner, "Is Homeopathy 'New Science' or 'New Age'," The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Fall/Winter 1997).

 

87. Marion Nestle, Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health (California Studies in Food and Culture - University of California Press; ISBN = 0520224655; Hardcover - 469 pages; 2002)

 

88.           &nbs p;                           Bonnie Liebman, “Antioxidants: No Magic Bullet,” Nutrition Action Health Letter, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 1-8 (Center for Science in the Public Interest; April 2002).

 

89.           &nbs p;                           Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey, Bruce N. Ames, Julie K. Andersen, Andrzej Bartke, Judith Campisi, Christopher Heward, Roger J. McCarter, and Gregory Stock, Time To Talk SENS: Critiquing the Immutability of Human Aging (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, in press; 2002).

 

90.           &nbs p;                           George E. Vaillant, Aging Well: Surprising Guideposts to a Happier Life from the Landmark Harvard Study of Adult Development  (Little Brown & Company; New York; ISBN: 0316989363; 2002).

 

91.           &nbs p;                           “Health for Life: Living Longer, Living Better" Newsweek (Special Edition; Fall/Winter 2002).

92."The Science of Staying Healthy: New Discoveries Can Help Prevent Everything from Obesity to Cancer to Heart Disease," Time Magazine (January 21, 2002).

92.           &nbs p;  Michael P. Brickey, "The Extended Life: Four Strategies for Healthy Longevity," The Futurist, pp. 52-56 (September/October 2001).

93.           &nbs p;   J. P. Magalhaes, “Winning the War Against Aging,” The Futurist, pp. 48-50 (March-April 2003).

94.           &nbs p;  Michael P. Brickey, Defy Aging: Develop the Mental and Emotional Vitality to Live Longer, Healthier, and Happier Than You Ever Imagined (395 pages; ISBN: 0970155506; New Resources Press; 2000).

95.           &nbs p;  Bradley J. Willcox, D. Craig Willcox, and Makoto Suzuki, The Okinawa Program: How the World's Longest-Lived People Achieve Everlasting Health (Clarkson Potter Publishers, New York; 2001).

986669

99.           &nbs p;  96. David Snowdon, Aging with Grace: What the Nun Study Teaches Us About Leading Longer, Healthier, and More Meaningful Lives (Bantam Books, New

100.           

101.          York; 2001).

 

106.           

107.           

 

 

            97.

 

108.           David

109.           

113.          Heber, M.D., Ph.D. and Susan Bowerman, What Color Is Your Diet?: The   Seven Colors of Health (224 pages; ISBN: 0060393793; Regan Books; 2001).

 

 

 

98. David Tuller, “Calculating the Benefits of Managing Stress,” The New York Times, p. D7 (January 22, 2002).

99.

123.          S. Jay Olshansky, Bruce A. Carnes, and Aline Desesquelles, "Prospects for Human Longevity," Science, Vol. 291, No. 5508, pp. 1491-2 (February 23, 2001).

 

100.

 

128.          Ronald Lee, “Predicting Human Longevity,” Science, Vol. 292, No. 5522, pp. 1654-55 (June 1, 2001).

 

 

 

101. Leonard Hayflick, "The Future of Aging," Nature, Vol. 408, pp. 267-269 (November 9,   2000).

 

102. S. Jay Olshansky, Leonard Hayflick, Bruce A. Carnes, Robert Arking, Allen Bailey, Andrzej Bartke, Vladislav V. Bezrukov, Jacob Brody, Robert N. Butler, L. Stephen Coles, David Danon, Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey, Lloyd Demetrius, Astrid Fletcher, James F. Fries, Leonid Gavrilov, Natalia Gavrilova, David Gershon, Roger Gosden, Carol W. Greider, S. Mitchell Harman, David Harrison, Christopher Heward, Henry R. Hirsch, Robin Holliday, Tom Johnson, Tom Kirkwood, George Martin, Alec A. Morley, Charles Nam, Sang Chul Park, Linda Partridge, Graham Pawelec, Thomas T. Perls, Suresh Rattan, Robert Ricklefs, Leslie (Ladislas) Robert, Rick Rogers, Henry Rothschild, Douglas L. Schmucker, Monika Skalicky, Len Smith, Raj Sohal, Richard L. Sprott, Andrus Viidik, Jan Vijg, Eugenia Wang, Andrew Weil, Georg Wick, and Woodring Wright, "No Truth to the Fountain of Youth," Scientific American, Vol. 286, No. 6, pp. 92-95 (June 2002).

 

103. Donald B. Louria, "Second Thoughts on Extending Life-Spans: Researchers Are Making Great Strides in Extending the Boundaries of Human Aging, But the World May Not Be Ready for an End-of-Life Population Explosion," The Futurist, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 44-48 (January-February 2002).

 

104.      Bruce A. Carnes, S. Jay Olshansky, and Douglas Grahn, “Biological Evidence for the Limits to the Duration of Life,” Biogerontology, Vol. 4, pp. 31-45 (2003).

105.     Robert N. Butler, Michael Fossel, S. Mitchell Harman, Christopher B. Heward, S. Jay Olshansky, Thomas T. Perls, David J. Rothman, Sheila M. Rothman, Huber R. Warner, Michael D. West, and Woodring E. Wright, "Is There an Anti-Aging Medicine?" Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences, Vol. 57A, No. 9, pp. B333-8 (September 2002).

106.     Aubrey D. N. J. de Grey, Leonid Gavrilov, S. Jay Olshansky, L. Stephen Coles, Richard G. Cutler, Michael Fossel, S. Mitchell Harman, "No Scientifically-Proven Anti-Aging Medicine," Letter to Science, Vol. 296, No. 5568, p. 65 “To Members and Friends of the Los Angeles Gerontology Research Group:” (April 26, 2002).

107.      Sally A. Shumaker, Claudine Legault, Stephen; Leon Thal, Robert B. Wallace, Judith K. Ockene, Susan L. Hendrix, Beverly N. Jones III, Annlouise R. Assaf, Rebecca D. Jackson, Jane Morley Kotchen, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Jean Wactawski-Wende, for the WHIMS Investigators, “Estrogen Plus Progestin and the Incidence of Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Postmenopausal Women The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial," JAMA, Vol. 289, No. 20, pp. 2651-62 (May 28, 2003).

 

108. Mary Lee Vance, "Retrospective: Can Growth Hormone Prevent Aging?," The
         New England Journal of Medicine
, Vol. 348, No. 9, pp. 779-80 (February 27, 2003).

 

109. James F. Fries, “Aging, Natural Death, and the Compression of Morbidity,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 303, pp. 130-5 (1980).

 

110. James F. Fries and Lawrence M. Crapo, Vitality and Aging: Implications of the Rectangular Curve (W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, CA; 1981).

 

111. James F. Fries, “The Compression of Morbidity: Near or Far?” The Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 67, No. 2, pp. 208-232 (1989).

 

112. Gruman, G. J. “A History of Ideas about the Prolongation of Life,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 56, No. 9, pp. 1-102 (1966).

 

113. James O. Prochaska, John C. Norcross, and Carlo C. Diclemente, Changing for Good: A Revolutionary Six-Stage Program for Overcoming Bad Habits and Moving Your Life Positively Forward (Quill/HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., New York; 1994).

 

114. Saverio Stranges, James R. Marshall, Raj Natarajan, Richard P. Donahue, Maurizio Trevisan,

Gerald F. Combs, Francesco P. Cappuccio, Antonio Ceriello, and Mary E. Reid, "Effects of

Long-Term Selenium Supplementation on the Incidence of Type-2 Diabetes: A Randomized

Trial," Annals of Internal Medicine (July 2007).

 

115. "Outcomes: Selenium Supplements May Raise Diabetes Risk," The New York Times (July 10, 2007).

 

116. "Supplement May Add Diabetes Risk," The Los Angeles Times (July 14, 2007).

 

117. Chris Woolston, "The Heathy Skeptic: As a Diet Aid, It Lacks Shine: The Metal Chromium

Plays a Vital Role As a Nutrient, but Fails as a Weight-Loss Supplement," The Los Angeles

Times, pp. F1-7 (July 30, 2007).

 

118. Patrick Barry, “Curry Power: An Age-Old Seasoning Could Help Combat Alzheimer’s,” Science News, Vol. 172, No. 11, pp. 1677-8 (September 15, 2007).

 

119.  John P. A. Ioannidis, MD; Anna-Bettina Haidich, MSc; Maroudia Pappa, MSc; Nikos Pantazis, MSc; Styliani I. Kokori, MD; Maria G. Tektonidou, MD; Despina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis, MD; Joseph Lau, MD   “Comparison of Evidence of Treatment Effects in Randomized and Nonrandomized Studies,”   JAMA, Vol. 286, No. 7 (August 15, 2001).

 

120. Stephen Bent, M.D., Christopher Kane, M.D., Katsuto Shinohara, M.D., John Neuhaus, Ph.D., Esther S. Hudes, Ph.D., M.P.H., Harley Goldberg, D.O., and Andrew L. Avins, M.D., M.P.H., “Saw Palmetto for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 354, No. 6, pp. 557-66 (February 9, 2006).

 

121. Judy Gruen, Studies, Studies Everywhere: Conflicting Reports Are Tough To Process,” The Los Angeles Times, p. F9 (October 1, 2007).

 

122. “Vitamins Don’t Aid Woman’s Hearts,” The Los Angeles Times, p. A15 (August 19, 2007).

 

123. “Antioxidants Don’t Lessen Strokes for at-Risk Women,” The New York Times, p. D6 (August 21, 2007).

 

124. Reuters, “Vitamins Add Little in Heart Fight,” The Wall Street Journal, p. D3 (August 14, 2007).

 

125. Judy Peres, “Diet Found To Not Help Breast Cancer Survival: The Fruit-and-Vegetable Study Runs Counter to Earlier Research,” The Los Angeles Times, p. A19 (July 18, 2007).

 

126. Andreas von Bubnoff, “Numbers Can Lie: Vitamins, Hormones, Coffee – Today They’re Good, Tomorrow They’re Bad. Why All the Flip-Flops?” The Los Angeles Times, pp. F1,6,7 (September 17, 2007).

 

127. John P. A. Ioannidis, “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False,”  PLoS Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 8, p. e124 (August 30, 2005).

 

128.           &nbs p;          Laura Johannes, “Hot-Flash Pill Is Worth a Try, But Does It Really Work?” The Wall Street Journal, p. D2 (September 4, 2007).

 

129.           &nbs p;          “Older Bones See Benefit of Calcium and Vitamin D,” The New York Times, p. D6 (September 4, 2007).

 

 

130.           &nbs p;          Ron Winslow, “Report Sheds Light on Hormone Therapy: Researchers Identify Molecule That Hinders Estrogen Treatment,” The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, B3 (September 17, 2007).

 

131.           &nbs p;          Gina Kolata, “The Elderly Always Sleep Worse, and Other Myths of Aging,” The New York Times, pp. D1, 4 (October 23, 2007).

 

 


 

APPENDIX A.  HEALTH-RELATED NEWSLETTERS

 

Harvard Health Letter (Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Monthly 1990-1998).

 

The Johns Hopkins Medical Letter: Health After 50 (Baltimore, Maryland, Monthly).

 

Health News, published by the Editors of the New England Journal of Medicine (P. O. Box 52924; Boulder, CO 80323-2924).

 

Tufts University Diet and Nutrition Newsletter (P. O. Box 57843; Boulder, CO 80321-7843).

 

Nutrition Action Healthletter (1875 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.; Washington, D.C. 20009).

 

CERI: Smart Drug News: The Newsletter of the Cognitive Enhancement Research Institute (Menlo Park, California; Monthly 1992-97).

 

Melatonin Update (Be Happier Press, Marina del Rey, California 90295; Quarterly 1997).

 

Preventive Medicine Up-Date (International Academy of Alternative Health and Medicine; Redondo Beach, California 90277; 310-540-0564).

 

Journal of Longevity Research (Medical Reviews in the Preventive Medicine Field; Health Quest Publications, 316 California Avenue; Reno, Nevada 89509; Monthly up to Vol. 2, No. 10).

 

APPENDIX B.  NUTRITIONAL ASSOCIATIONS

 

Council for Responsible Nutrition

1300 19th Street, N.W., Suite 310

Washington, D.C. 20036-1609

Telephone: 202-872-1488

 

National Nutritional Foods Association

150 East Paularino Avenue, Suite 285

Costa Mesa, California 92626

Telephone: 714-966-6632

 

APPENDIX C.  HEALTH SOURCES ON THE INTERNET

 

1.  Gerontology Research Groups for Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. (http://www.grg.org)

2.  Scientific News Group:  SCI.LIFE-EXTENSION

3.  American Association for Anti-Aging Medicine (A4M)(http://www.worldhealth.net)

4.  Robert Bradbury of Aeiveos, Inc., Seattle, Washington (http://www.aeiveos.wa.com)

5.  The Aging Research Centre (http://www.hookup.net/mall/aging)

6.  Registered Dietitian Joanne Larsen (http://www.hopetechno.com/rdindex.htm)

7.  FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

(http://www.vm.cfsan.fda.gov/list.html)

8.  USDA Nutrient Values (http://www.fatfree.com/usda/usda.cgi)

9.  Wellness Center (http://wellnesscenter.com/Longevity)

10. Longevity Digest (an electronic newsletter, ed. by Brian Rowley <browley@alumni.ubc.ca>).

 

After more than ten years of publication, we regret that Longevity Magazine has ceased its publication.  Longevity Digest likewise.

APPENDIX D.   PERSONAL COMPUTER SOFTWARE

 

1.  Dr. Walford’s Interactive Diet Planner (2 floppy disks)

 

The Longbrook Company

1015 Gayley Avenue, Suite 1215

Los Angeles, CA 90024

http://www.walford.com

Telephone: 310-392-8208

E-mail: 71510.2431@compuserve.com

 

2.  Diet Analyst for Windows ($29)

Personal Chef 2.0 for Windows (Electronic Cook Book)($29)

Medical Drug Reference 3.0 for Windows ($19)

References for more than 8,000 Prescription and OTC Drugs

Home Remedies for Windows ($29)

 

Parsons Technology, Inc.

1 Parsons Drive

Hiawatha, Iowa 52233-0100

http://www.parsonstech.com

Telephone: 319-395-9626


 

3.  Food Label Analyzer on CD-ROM ($5.00 before July 17, 1996)

 

Ohio Distinctive Software

4588 Kenny Road

Columbus, Ohio 43220

Telephone: 614-459-0453

 

4.  Personal Fitness Trainer (for DOS)

 

Weider/Digital Research Systems

Telephone: 619-695-3598

 

5. BodyCraft (Individualized Workout and Diet Programs)

 

AlphaSport Software

Telephone: 619-457-7773

 

APPENDIX E.   HEALTH RISKS TRAVELING ABROAD

 

If you are concerned about health risks while traveling abroad and have access to a FAX machine, call the CDC at 404-332-4565, 24-hours a day, and they will FAX back to you, free, within minutes, their index of documents covering current health risks and prevention recommendations, suggested immunizations, disease outbreak bulletins, and food or water precautions for 16 regions of the world.

 

APPENDIX F.  LABORATORIES CAPABLE OF MEASURING OXIDATIVE-STRESS PROFILES FROM URINE AND/OR BLOOD

(samples to be shipped in dry ice)

 

The Kronos Clinic

222 East Highland, Suite 220

Phoenix, AZ 85016

Telephone: 1-877-667-0007 (toll free) or 602-667-5580

FAX:             602-667-7772

URL: http://www.kronosclinic.com  or http://www.thekronosgroup.com

Note: The former President and CEO of Genox, Inc., Dr. Richard G. Cutler, is now associated with the Kronos Longevity Research Institute in Phoenix, Arizona. He has now retired to Virginia.

 

Attention: Dr. Ronald Klatz, President

American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine

American Longevity Research Institute

1510 West Montana

Chicago, Illinois 60614

Telephone: 312-528-1000

 


Attention: Dr. Christopher B. Heward, Ph.D.

Vice President and Research Director

Emerald Laboratories, Inc.

5933 Sea Lion Place, Suite 105

Carlesbad, California 92008

Telephone: 619-930-8078 or

3246 Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 203

Torrance, California 90505

Telephone: 310-530-1732

[Dr. Heward is now VP for Research and Development for The Kronos Group in Phoenix, Arizona]

 

SpectraCell Laboratories         $425 for profile of 19 nutrients and $500 for antioxidants

515 Post Oak Blvd., Suite 830

Houston, Texas 77027

Telephone: 713-621-3101

 

Aeron Lifecycles

1933 Davis Street, Suite 310

San Leandro, California 94577

Telephone: 1-800-631-7900

 

Diagnos-Techs, Inc.

Clinical and Research Laboratory

6620 South 192nd Place, J-104

Kent, Washington 98032

Telephone: 1-800-878-3787

 

Great Smokies Diagnostic Laboratory

18 A. Regent Park Blvd.

Asheville, North Carolina 28806

Telephone: 704-253-0621

 

 

 

National Biotech Laboratory

13758 Lake City Way, N.E.

Seattle, Washington 98125

Telephone: 1-800-846-6258

FAX: 206-363-2025

 

Liberty Testing Laboratory                

Brooklyn, New York                         

 


MetaMetrix

Atlanta, Georgia

 

Attention: Dr. Charles Thomas, Jr., Director of Research

PANTOX Laboratories

4622 Santa Fe Street              

San Diego, California 92109 

Voice: 1-888-726-8698                      

 

It costs $275 for a profile of 20 antioxidants (including SOD, Catalase, Glutathione, and Folic Acid); it costs $55 extra for a homocystine level to measure cardiovascular risk, since this test requires a special column run.  They have a data base of 4,000 blood samples analyzed to date; unfortunately, as yet, there is no large national university medical-school database of typical levels for all healthy Americans to compare with.  Someday, if the tests are automated and done in bulk, a full series should cost less than $100.  In the meantime, hopefully, health insurers will pay the bill.  Note that Prof. Bruce Ames, Dept. of Biochemistry at UC Berkeley is a member of their Board of Directors.